Morning News

Morning News

Paradise is on fire
get out of the car
and run
I thought I was
going to die
the fireman wrapped me
in a fire-blanket
the inferno wall of flames
on all sides
the tail-lights were melting
I called my husband
telling him
I am going to die
get out of the car and run
the town is gone,
Paradise is burnt to ash.
Several famous stars
also lost everything
along with the others
who shared Paradise.


7 theology lessons

Theology lesson 1: Theology and Anthropology

Yada: The Wound of our Knowledge (for Steven Garber)

“If you know, you care; if you don’t care, you don’t know.” S.Garber

Does theology
or do anything?
Or mean anything
to matter
to anything
or anyone?

Do we need it
for anyone
to mind it
at any time?
Does it do anything?

Since so much
depends upon
the nexus
between knowledge
and responsibility,
knowing and doing;
since our survival
depends upon
our truths being true
to the way the world
actually is,
why we continue
even when everything
that might be done
is still undone,
and why when words
become flesh
we step in
and begin
to know
and finally see
what love
will ask of us,
and to find
it is more
than we are able
to give.

To know is to care
to remember
the telos of life,
the reason for being,
to do what we know
in love.

I am not
what I could be,
nor will be,
until He makes me
as he wills and is.

Our names
are hidden
on the inverse
curvature of the earth’s horizon
which disintegrates
with each stroke of the rower’s oar
whose name is not known.

A Great White was tagged
and named Mary Lou
and was spotted near our shore.

with each [shudder] of strength and oar
the alphabets of our names
tumble with abandon
seemingly random re-organizing
across the rim of visible space
spelling catastrophe
of immeasurable magnitude
when these waters covered our earth
our home our names
now rewritten in a cursive
of love we do not yet know,
names written on a stone
hidden in the heart of the sea
beyond the cold arc of the sun
burning like white steel
hot and blinding letters
too scorching to touch or say
we watch for when
they will be known
letter by letter
pronounced with thunder and rain
and with no more sorrow nor melancholia.

I longed
for my children
to know the world,
but also to care.

Theology lesson 2: Soteriology
The end of unconditional love

“And so he condemned sin in the flesh,
in order that the righteous requirement of the law
might be fully met in us . . .” Rom 8:4

If God’s love
is conditioned by his holiness,
he cannot ever love unholiness,
evil, or unrighteousness,
and therefore the conditions of his love
must be met by his holy heart
through righteous intervention of propitiation
to procure redemption of the unworthy and unlovely
to refashion them into those worth reclaiming
and making new again.

The most costly conditions ever known and met
of God’s love found alone in Christ’s ultimate gift
of himself to the death in our stead.

The conditions of our vows
require us to live and love
within those bounds
to love as we have been loved
is not a license to live
without conditions
or boundaries.

To live in grace
is not a license to sin,
and expect to be loved
regardless of what we choose
to do in grace.

The love of Christ compels us
to obedience born of love.

And this is the condition of sanctification:
“If you love me, you will obey my commandments.”

Theology lesson 3Ecclesiology and Eschatology

“And the Desert Will Be Glad . . .” (Is 35:1)
יְשֻׂשׂ֥וּם מִדְבָּ֖ר וְצִיָּ֑ה וְתָגֵ֧ל עֲרָבָ֛ה וְתִפְרַ֖ח כַּחֲבַצָּֽלֶת׃

If mountains worship God by being mountains and stars worship God by being stars, how do humans worship God? By being human, in the full glory of what that means.” R. Middleton

Awash with the sweetest
scent of magnolia
magnificent aroma
as the blueberry and strawberry crepes
sizzle on the griddle,
that antique iron one
your grandmother left to me
to remember the many times
of chess and Life
and checkers before the fire-place,
the one which set ablaze the chimney
a number of Christmas mornings
to which the firemen said
we must get a sweep.

The cat and dog sit to wonder why
but why is not their question.

We tried every summer
to strain the soil to grow our salad,
soil that had been used to cover the town dump,
shoes and bottles every season sprouting
with the lettuce and potatoes.

The sons of Zebedee
wanted their glory early,
before the cross, but learned
his cup was their cup also.
The earth hums.

All day long it was
one of those days
of expecting someone,
but none came,
expectant and hoping
content to wait, anticipating.

This week the pastor’s sermon
touched my son’s heart,
on having the ambition of the kingdom,
not to power and prestige.
These words
are hard ones
kind of words.

Peeling the potatoes
the texture and sound
of scraping its rough dirt-like skin
to the pulp moist with white starch
as the cool-sharp-blade
slices the core and bangs
against the board
with a thud.

It is a sweaty-hot day
of heavy, slow clouds
hazy-large on our horizon,
barely a bird is singing
and the day is long
but it is so sweet
with the ordinary,
in which God delights the most,
and when the rocks of the hills
and the rivers
break into singing,
the grasses with their
scent of creation
clap their hands
for his good pleasure.

For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven. Col 1.19-20

 Theology Lesson 4: Bibliology

“Has any other people heard the voice of God speaking out of fire, as you have, and lived?” Deut 4:33

Why do so many imagine
they want to hear
the Voice of God?
That Voice which spoke
the galaxies
and all the sands of many seas,
the anemone and elephant
with Leviathan,
and a billion species
of trees and ferns,
lichen, spiders, and cats. . .
the Voice which made us male and female
that numbers every hair on every human ever born
and knows every sparrow ever fallen
from under the sun and moon
which he told to give us light,
the Voice that split rocks and mountains
long ago when the law of love was spoken
in thunder and fire and whispers
to Moses and the Prophets,
the Voice that melts the skies and burns the heart
to stillness,
and dread unspeakable.

Why do so many presume
to learn to hear this Voice,
as though it is a never-ending monologue
at a pitch one can just, with practice, tune into?

Why do so many imagine they want to hear the Voice
“I AM”
at which armies of armed men fall forward,
the dead arise, stars implode, and water becomes wine?

And yet, we are deaf with hearing the heavens declare the glory,
and dull with reading that he has already spoken.
Not content with this, we seek out soothsayers,
astrologers, Oracles, and self-proclaimed prophets.
But have they heard this Voice?

None has ever learned, in some school for prophets,
to hear this Voice,
but all who have heard, barely lived to tell their tale,
and tell it they did, since God has spoken,
and by his Spirit preserved it all in the canon
called the Bible.

Theology Lesson 5: Theodicy


These days angels
do not dance
on the horizons of time.
My clock ticks
its golden rhymes
to mark its hours
of rain and dark;
light at the rim
of pain and minor keys.
Sing not of these,
I am told,
only in the major.

Is joy in sorrow really possible?
To see beauty shimmer
in the arctic cold of the Borealis
above the northern bridge
out of reach
at the natal birth of our song,
the nöel of one accord,
signifying something
a sound so strange to our ears,
a cacophony across the arc of our loves
who play solitaire in the pews
who set out with a compass
but come full-circle.

[I have heard it said]
the truth can be debated, but not contested;
the problem is not the existence of truth,
but rather the criteria for determining it.

The thirty-one kings defeated beyond the Jordan
would be displeased to find
that they are considered
(by those who doubt such records)
as but a folk-tale,
while from the East voices rise in clutching fear
as another King comes into view.

Theology Lesson 6: Ethics

Two plus two is a moral equation
upon which all depends. 

Theology Lesson 7: Prolegomena & Theology Proper
on choices [if-possible]

If God
is the sea below
then I will jump
from a cliff-side
in hope he
will embrace me.

If God
is the sky above,
or beyond the sun,
then I will run to its outer rim
to fly with wings of clouds
to greet him.

If God
is time
or space,
then I must be light
a physical constant
to go to meet him.

If God
is you
or me,
then I may be you
and you may be me
before he came to be.

If God
is the air, the elements,
and crucible of fire,
then I can become
a particle
in the forge of his pyre.

If God
is the All-in-all,
and is this and that,
then I might be like him,
really nothing particular
very much at all.

If God
is yin and yang, light and dark,
good and evil, inside and out,
then I must insist
he may be just
an ever-receding mist.

If God
is Totally Other,
the Unknowable Unmoved Mover,
then I will pray to the Absence
to gain knowledge
of the inconceivable.

If God
is Paradox, the dialectic of our yes and no,
a synthesis of the antithesis,
then I will listen intently
to hear this Eternally Silent One.

If God
is the Impossible Possibility,
a semantical Liability,
then I will reason out
of this non-contradiction-in-terms
to reduce him to what I can deduce.

If God
is a ‘part of my life’
when I invite him in
as co-pilot to my plans,
then he will affirm
all that is me and mine.

But if God
is YHWH, Who was, Who is, and Who always will be,
though – superstitiously – we no longer
can pronounce that Name,
then unapologetically this poem
does preach he came one day
in Jesus the Christ, the Way, the Truth, the Life.

And that he is not the sea, not the sky, not time or space,
or you or me, nor air and elements, nor this or that, not yin or yang,
nor Other nor Paradox, nor the Possible Impossible.

True Heroism in a World of Celebrity Counterfeits

I have been reading one of Dick Keyes’ works, True Heroism: In a World of Celebrity Counterfeits (Colorado: NavPress, 1995), in which Keyes sets out to unmask the fraudulent heroes so frequently held in 51D956CCFmL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_high esteem. Since we so wrongly attach heroism to talent or fame or wealth or intelligence or credentials, rather than the biblical notion of heroism which is one of moral character, true integrity, we become cynical and untrusting that heroism is even possible. He explores the many reasons we have become so cynical about the “heroes” of our times, who artfully present themselves as heroic, when indeed they are not, so much so that we are often hard-pressed to identify anyone we would consider truly heroic. Yet, he argues, we need heroes, and we will always search for them. People need heroes as “the motivating force of their imaginations to seize hold of human excellence and realize that that excellence might someday actually become their own” (p. 18). To have heroes is by definition to want to be heroic, but this is “not the same as wanting to be seen or acknowledged as a hero by other people” (p. 18). That is the same as wanting to be humble so that everyone will see our humility! Hunger for approval and accolades can thus make fools of us. Therefore, it is incredibly important to identify whatever heroes we are trying to emulate, since they may not indeed be what they appear to be.  And, they become increasingly hidden to us as we grow up, despite their ongoing molding influences on us.

The power of heroism rests by definition in what we prize and value the most, and so is driven by the forces of both shame (aversions) and reward (aspirations). This means that when our definition of heroic is incorrect, it will bring both unnecessary shame and unwarranted adulation. For example, if wealth, power, and strength are seen as heroic, then poverty and weakness are seen as shameful. If IQ or beauty, or fame, are our ideals of heroism, then shame or pride in them becomes our lot. Yet, in neither case do these have anything to do with heroism. There is nothing heroic about being smart or handsome, since these are matters of genes, not integrity or heroism. Also, if accomplishments become our definition of heroic, as it is so much in our times, it should come as no surprise that an extraordinary number of people claim false credentials on their resumes. Simply put, when we emulate what is not properly heroic we become fools.  As in our world today, even though we often get our models from the Bible, we more often get our morals from Hollywood, and this leads to total confusion in seeking heroes as models. We also frequently entertain in-closet heroes who are actually immoral and unidentified, and who prevent our escape from conflicted values and our vanities. To find a biblical model for heroism, we must have properly biblical, moral categories for heroism: “An integrated moral life involves being able to tell right from wrong, but not only that, it means actually doing the right. Even that is not all. Full integration of morality and heroism means that we love doing the right, we prize it, we aspire to it, delight in it” (p. 26).

In our generation of great cynicism, having been so hoodwinked by our self-serving and false heroes, and insufficient definitions of heroism, Keyes cautions that we can wrongly come to emulate the anti-hero, and thus mock true heroism. As C.S. Lewis famously said, “We laugh at honor, and are shocked to find traitors in our midst.”  This is why searching for and finding biblical definitions of heroism is more vitally important than ever before, and looking to God the Creator is, of course, the key.

“Heroism is not an illusion produced by human cultures that leaves us in disillusionment or perpetual adolescence. Rather, it is a pointer to glory and honor that actually exists in the character of the Creator. In the light of the Christian faith, the deepest human aspirations are not absurdities but are longings that make sense if a person Creator actually does exist and cares about us” (p. 95).

It is in Christ alone that we learn what glory and honor are, since he is the standard of all heroism.

“One who follows Christ is not first loyal to a set of ideas or to the institution of the church, but to God and the story that God is working on the world. God holds out the promise to us that our lives can be good stories as they are part of his work on earth. It is not that heroism is merely possible. Actually, heroism is expected. We are living in a world where the power of evil is enormous and ever-present. We are called to join a heroic battle against it, in God’s name and with his help. Life cannot be lived in some morally neutral space. There is no such space. The battle is fought against untruth, suffering, injustice, and hatred in the outside world, and against self-deception, pride, hypocrisy, and selfishness within our own lives” (p. 116).

In order to understand how Christ must become our paradigm for the heroic, he explores how the Bible so thoroughly debunks our false notions of heroes and heroism, and one of those ways is through humor, mockery, and satire of the fool:

“Like snow in summer or rain in harvest
So honor is not fitting for a fool.” Prov 26:1

“We like the idea of honor. We do not like being a fool. We dread being laughed at or ridiculed . . . . We go to extreme lengths to avoid that sort of shame and dishonor ourselves” (pp. 123-124).

The fool is someone who thinks they have outwitted others to gain for themselves honor and respect, through any means possible: lying, deceit, manipulation, falsifying credentials, and exaggeration. The problem with the fool is that he thinks he has outmaneuvered God into having what God has not provided or allowed:

“The fool is the one who thinks he or she has beaten the system, outwitted an absent, impersonal, feeble, or uncaring God in order to have a more fulfilling life that God would have allowed” (p. 127).

“Humor, like honesty, is on the side humility, not against it. Humor thrives on exposing incongruity. Not all incongruity is funny. Not all incongruity is funny, but all that is funny is incongruous in some way. Pomposity, pretention, and respectability are hopelessly vulnerable to humor, because humor can force us to the see the incongruous shortfall between the proud posture and the real truth. Without psychiatry, politics, the clergy, the police, and the military, cartoonists would be unemployed.

One of the greatest incongruities in the world is human pride. A human being lives in God’s world, walks on his ground, and is able to breathe his air because of God’s sustaining and preserving power and love. People break his laws repeatedly. In an uncertain world, one of the few certainties is that each one of us will die. The Christian claim is that all of us will then appear before God for evaluation. The inconsistencies of human pride is that it cannot tolerate this future but builds alternative, distracting scenarios” (p. 160).

The only remedy to folly and pride is to follow and imitate Christ. Though the idea of imitating Christ has seen many abuses, it is the call of Jesus that we follow his example: “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps” (1 Pet 2:21). We imitate Christ as we find our purpose for living in Christ alone, the meaning of our lives is not manufactured, but real and from him. We are to love as God loves, and to love what God loves. We are to despise the shame of being his followers, living with courage (to be truthful, faithful, and integral) even when scorned and ridiculed, misunderstood, and rejected. It means to develop such a deep habit of compassion and courage that one is willing to suffer unjustly for others. In that case, it may mean suffering unjustly for actively resisting the status quo of injustice and hypocrisy. It certainly also will mean learning how to truly forgive others when we have been hurt by them, refusing to become resentful and bitter at the betrayal of others. When we follow Christ in these ways, then we are set free to live a life of unfettered and loving service. Rather than scrambling for self-serving accolades, recognitions, and service from others as evidence of our great accomplishments, we learn that true heroism is to be a servant to all, especially to include the weak and vulnerable. This is the way of humility and true heroism.

Sweet charm

There are many people
who well know how
to sound their alarms
at your know-how
and saying subtly
with a scoff
and a hey and a nonny ho
you know nothing
of what you say,
but such as it is
with barely a whisper
they have reduced your empires
of reason to shards
of imperceptible clutter
swiftly to be swept
under the carpet
of sweet charm.



pretense – pretend – pretext – pretension



“This world,” I was once informed
by my Greek professor,
“is built on bluff,”
tongues as smooth as butter and oil,
drawn swords.

Another told me
that to control a crowd,
“just use the name Jesus,
and loudly.”

Voices and tongues of hearts
are one thing,
but consider those,
cruel and violent, who kidnap and pillage,
enslaving others to their will.

Do I pretend to face this,
to ask this,
can I consider this,
can I cast this burden?

When I am afraid,
when they distort my words,
and my tears fill up your bottle,
can God be for me
when my heart is not?

And yet the sea,
it calms us,
splintering its light in sound
rivulets across the bay.

An irony of so much beauty,
even as Job cried, “oh that my words
were inscribed in a book!”
All the while they crushed him
with words to find a pretext
in their case against him.

He replied,
“They say to God,
‘depart from us!
We do not desire knowledge
of your ways.’”

While living in houses
safe from fear,
in great prosperity,
their children skip about singing,
but suddenly . . .

Words of the whisperer
are dainty morsels
descending to the innermost places.

So many proclaim their loyalty,
but Solomon asked,
“a trustworthy man,
Who can find?”

To wait, silently, is the harder way,
a path without pretension.
For such a long time
I walked along a road
that seemed so right.

My neighbors this morning,
while cursing up a storm,
of self-indulgence and random conversation,
devoid of truth, but so much laughter, seem so happy,
but they really only are asking, “who is paying for this, my wedding, not my mother-in-law, if we have no alcohol will anyone come, will anyone have a good time . . .  I told her, I don’t care if you like me or you don’t, we can have it either way, she starts crying and bitching, one of those fake criers I have known, I mean honestly . . . I like, but I cannot stand my in-laws  — I  am not married now . . . she got so drunk she could not remember what she said  — would, will, you apologize now . . . My fiancé said, ‘if you wear Jords, I will divorce you . . .’ so, apparently, when I came in wearing Jenkos and a fedora hat, she just looked at me and walked out of the house . . . Lord knows I love hipsters . . . Can I have one more free beer, maybe a shark will kill me . . . Do you have any advice for me beforehand . . . . ? 

What is the Church [to do]?

See also my longer essay on the churchchurch6

The church gathers around the world every Sunday to celebrate in corporate worship the gospel of Jesus, while awaiting his return. Yet so many are confused as to what the church itself is supposed to be. Some will say that we need no church beyond “where two or more are gathered,” but this could not be the full extent of what Jesus established in the world as his visible church. Since he established his church in the world as the vehicle to bring the Gospel of the Kingdom of God in Christ, it must include the full corporate body of all true believers under the biblical leadership and service of elders and deacons, and for the following:

  1. Word of God (exposition of entire Scripture) and celebratory worship of God through the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Table of remembrance.
  2. Discipleship and Discipline through loving nurture, edification, care, and accountability in the obedient “walk” of all members in their Creational Commission and complete submission to Christ.
  3. Witness to God through compassionate evangelism and proclamation of the gospel by all believers to fulfill Jesus’ Great Commission.

John Frame summarizes three important aspects of the church stressed in the Reformation: “The Reformers generally acknowledged three marks: the true preaching of the Word, the right administration of the sacraments, and church discipline.” Systematic Theology, p. 1023

“It is through the church that God’s kingdom comes to all the ends of the earth. The church is not the church unless it is in action, that is, in other words, unless it is in mission.” Systematic Theology, p. 1033


Head or Heart?

For a pdf, see The Head, Heart, and Moral Knowledge.docx

If any knowledge is “just head knowledge,” and not “heart knowledge,
are we accountable for it?

If all knowledge is moral knowledge, can our ignorance ever be any excuse?

Can the head know something the heart cannot?
Can the heart know something the head cannot?
Or, is there a “head and heart” dichotomy?
Can we have “just head knowledge” or just “heart knowledge” about anything?
Is there something to be said for seeking “heart knowledge” in contrast to “head knowledge”?


” . . . intellect and emotion are simply two aspects of human nature that together are fallen and together are regenerated and sanctified. Nothing in Scripture suggests that either is superior to the other. Neither is more fallen than the other, neither is necessarily more sanctified than the other.” John Frame[1]

A common assumption is that the “head” is inferior to the “heart” because feelings are superior (more real or relational) than thoughts or ideas (or beliefs). But if all knowledge can be understood as moral, and that all moral knowledge is by its nature emotive (oriented by the human will), then the head/heart dichotomy does not stand.

In short, if it can be established that all knowledge is moral knowledge, then for everything that we know, we are accountable for it, yes, morally responsible. That is, all knowledge involves moral motions (and emotions). For instance, whenever we ignore the truth of anything in God’s creation, we are trying to think and live contrary to God’s order of creation, regardless of what it is. Indeed, to live contrary to God’s order is to live contrary to God himself; it also creates profound complications in our lives, as in for example when people try to defy the laws of physics and jump off cliffs, knowing that the reality of gravity means that people who jump off cliffs go down, but they do so anyway in the vain hope that they can fly. In this case, the knowledge of gravity is true knowledge, but the foolish “heart” ignores it. This being the case, how could we say that the knowledge of gravity is less significant (inferior), less true, less emotive, or less moral, as in just a lesser “head” knowledge? To be sure, that knowledge of gravity was indeed categorically moral (i.e., “heart”) knowledge, because it is true knowledge of God’s created world that was summarily ignored. It follows then that this knowledge is significant, of great value, true, emotive, and moral. This silly example could be applied to all other knowledge possible about the universe, and I would add to that the knowledge of God himself. There can be no, properly speaking, inferior “head”(intellectual) knowledge in the lower story, and a superior “heart” (moral/emotional) knowledge in the upper story, as follows:

Heart (emotion) – higher, superior (feelings/motions?)  faith?

Head/mind (reason) – lower, inferior (thoughts/ideas?) reason?

In response to this dualism, I propose that any knowledge about God is moral knowledge, as even in the case of one who has no proper relationship with God, or one who rejects God as Lord (as also “the demons believe, and tremble” James 2:19). Despite the fact that a person may have a broken relationship with God, the knowledge they have of God is still moral and requires of them a “heart” response (emotive), which is always either towards faith or unbelief. There is no amoral (non-moral, just “head,” or non-emotive) response to God possible. Could it then not be affirmed that all knowledge about all things is moral knowledge and therefore real, true, actual knowledge? And thus, strictly speaking, there can be no lower story (inferior) “just head knowledge” (without the heart) of God, nor of anything in God’s creation. Conversely, there can be no upper story (superior) “just heart knowledge” (without head knowledge) of God, nor of anything in God’s creation. This may be reflected in, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength” (Deut 6:5; Mtt 22:37; Mk 12:30; Lu 10:27). There does not seem to be any duality or dichotomy here between superior heart versus inferior head knowledge, but a moral imperative that governs the whole person, described in heart, soul, mind, and strength. Indivisibly, the thoughts and feelings of the whole person govern the will, perspectives, attitudes, and path of life.[2] We cannot “follow our heart” as we are so often advised, that is, emotively without our head or our reason/rationality.

By extension, we can assert that 2+2 is a moral equation, no less so than to say that God is triune, three Persons in One God. All truth statements and all true knowledge are by definition theological knowledge, since they show to us God himself. This does not mean that such “knowledge of God” itself can save us from our sin or our condemnation by God’s perfect law.  Indeed, in Romans 1, Paul describes the accurate knowledge of God and his attributes, that all people have through their observation of nature, in order to say that such knowledge does not save us from darkness nor give us a properly restored (“heart”) relationship with God. In fact, that knowledge of God causes people to suppress the truth they know because of their unrighteousness. Even more, this rejection of a true knowledge (without faith) of God leads people to create false gods out of created things and bow down and worship them! This true knowledge of God that is suppressed is not simply somehow a kind of “head” knowledge unrelated to the “heart” of a person; they are inseparably one motive-function of the whole person (emotive and cognitive). This is a good case in which we can see that the response of a person is most certainly also emotive (or emotional in the heart) and not just intellectual (cognitive in the head). The human head-heart dynamic must include moral-motions that necessarily, and indivisibly, involve both emotive sentiment and cognitive understanding.

Admittedly, standing alone, the abstract equation 2+2=4 does not seem at first glance to be a moral equation, though as a true statement it is. And, the moment you apply it to your grocery tab, or when weighing gold bullion, it is evidently moral. Can it then be concluded, as a case in point, that there is no nonmoral (“head”) knowledge here, but entirely true knowledge that has a moral application in every case. For purposes of discussion, not ontological definitions, the “heart” always integrally interrelates with the “head” because they both reside in the core of the human person as one thing: the soul (or today, the whole person). This being the case, the “heart” may be said to describe the emotive moral-motions of the “head,” but the one can never be said to function independently of the other, since they are not separate entities; that is, if all knowledge is moral knowledge. To be clear, the math equation can never be understood as just a matter of either head or heart knowledge.

The foundational principle of all reality is the law of non-contradiction, that A cannot be non A. This is the irrepressible fact of reality: that all things have unity and diversity. All things are in relation, but all things are necessarily differentiated from all other things. This is the truth of the unity and diversity of all created reality, since all things reveal and reflect the triune nature of God who has unity and distinction, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Therefore, all knowledge about anything in God’s universe is in this sense moral knowledge for which we are accountable. In other words, to say we know about God, but that we are not responsible for that knowledge (as just “head knowledge”) of God implies a false dichotomy between moral and non-moral knowledge (as in the “head and heart” dichotomy).

To expand on that thought, to reject, deny, or live contrary to the fundamental truth of God’s universe, that A cannot be non A, that 2+4 cannot equal 5, that male cannot be female, that good cannot be evil, that God cannot be not God, that we humans cannot be non-human, is to reject God’s order of reality, since all things are differentiated by their nature. Considering the seriousness of this, it follows that evil originates from those created good with true knowledge of God and his creation, but who have rejected God and his order of creation and reality. They have broken down the unity and distinction principle of the law of non-contradiction, as the evil one asked, “Did God really say  . . . ?” in which the first temptation was to deny God’s own declaration of distinctions between good and evil, right and wrong, obedience and disobedience, truth and falsehood. To reject God’s definitions, distinctions, differentiations is a moral rejection of the true knowledge of God and his creation, and this does not happen in some part of the soul, or person, called the “head” as distinct from the “heart”; the rejection of such knowledge involves the whole will of the whole person, the emotive-cognition of the “heart and mind” together, if you will.

The Old Testament Hebrew and New Testament Greek terms give a complete picture of the whole person through the very frequent interconnection of body imagery of the eyes, heart, head, tongue, hands, and feet. These images and motifs are used so frequently in the Bible, we hardly notice them to ask why they are so prevalent, and what they imply.  For example, “head” is used many times in the Bible in a literal sense, as referring to one’s physical head, and sometimes in a figurative (symbolic) sense as referring either to authority and leadership, or to rulership (as in military, political, or marital contexts). Paul also expands this in application to the relationship of Christ the Bridegroom to his church the Bride (Col 1:18; 2:19; Eph 4:15; 5:23). But “head” is never used in the Bible in some dichotomous way as pitted against the “heart.” Similarly, the terms for “heart” in the Bible describe figurative aspects of what it means to be a human person (though very little reference to the physical organ of the heart). The biblical heart-terms cover the range of human personality and the intellect/mind, the will and emotions, desire, as well as one’s memory.  As a theological metaphor and common motif, heart-terms provide many central themes related to what constitutes a human being and what motivates them. It follows then that usually there is a moral component to the motif of the heart, as related to its corruptions, and thus a connection with the central gospel theme of the universal need for all humans to have a “new heart.” That is, as often described a, “circumcised heart,” one transformed (regenerated) by the Spirit of God; it is one in which the person is transformed towards true faithfulness and true love towards God and neighbor. This heart-aspect of redemption involves the entire function of the whole person: “thinking, remembering, feeling, desiring, and willing.”[2] As in the biblical terms related to the “head,” there is no bifurcation between terms of the “heart” and those related to the “head.” Further, the biblical relation of eyes, ears, head, heart, tongue, hands, and feet presents a holistic picture of the [whole] person integrally related internally and externally, either aligned by truth or misaligned by falsehood. As the internal (head/heart) is aligned with the truth, the work of the hands, direction of the feet, and the words of the tongue show externally the internal integrity, and vice versa.

This is why true knowledge of God must be accompanied by trust and faith and, by extension, submission to God himself through repentance that leads to obedience. True knowledge of God must be accompanied by the power of God’s Spirit to work in us faith and trust in him. This is especially so, since we are so prone to suppress, distort, and pervert the truth of the knowledge of God.  To know about God (what some mistakenly call “head” knowledge”), and to reject that knowledge (Rom 1), puts us in a place where we must have his powerful work in us to return us to a full and proper recognition that what we all know of God (through observation of creation) is true knowledge of God that makes us morally responsible (because it is true “heart knowledge”). This deduction stands to reason, since we are unable to receive/accept it properly in our own ability because we have been corrupted in our will, reason, feelings, and indeed in our whole person.

Sometimes the phrase “a saving knowledge” of God/Christ is used to describe this process of accepting and believing the knowledge of God, but this may unwittingly suggest that knowledge itself is what brings conversion or regeneration of the person. This is simply not correct. A so-called “saving knowledge” should not be understood as just more information (head) or more feeling (heart), but rather as a real relationship to the Living God of all truth and knowledge. A real relationship could be more accurately described as a restored relationship, since it can be said that all humans have a “relationship” with God, as made by him and in his image, but that relationship is as a broken one characterized by faithlessness, lovelessness, and alienation. We are born broken-hearted. In light of that, we all need a restored relationship with God himself, and that will lead to a restored relationship to his universe, his creation, and our neighbors. This importantly includes internal reconciliation within our divided, double-minded, broken-hearted, selves. We are reconciled internally, and increasingly, so that our heart-motions and our head-thoughts are realigned into one willing whole, where we are no longer ruled by tyrannical emotions that arise directly from our rebellious and unbelieving thoughts (by our rejection of the knowledge of God). We can know an integration of becoming whole again, and this is evidence of realignment with the truth of God that brings new and true integrity to our whole person, our heart, mind, and soul.

It follows then that true knowledge of God is entirely practical knowing, not just moral(heart/head) knowing, since we know the One who made the worlds, and since he is therefore the key to all reality we are consequently re-enabled to live wisely in his created universe. We move from those whose irrational heart-rejection (emotive-cognitive) of the knowledge of God and his order, that led to complete disintegration and disorientation of heart/mind, to those who live in the knowledge of God through a restored relationship with him and thus to his created universe. Our thoughts and feelings become progressively realigned to the One who made them and to the universe he created us for.

Perhaps, better categories to describe the “head and heart” dilemma could be the biblical concepts of knowledge about versus wisdom in response, since when people use these terms “head” and ‘heart” knowledge I think it is fair to say they are often trying to describe the difference between a wise response to the knowledge of God in faith (the heart) verses one of foolish unbelief (the head). While that may be true in a descriptive sense, I have tried to show that those categories do not do justice to the whole picture in Scripture that is better understood in the categories of wisdom (faith/belief in the true knowledge of God) over against unbelief (rejection of the true knowledge of God), or folly. This conflict is not described in the Bible as one between the head and the heart, but as one between foolish unbelief and wise belief, the latter response depending upon God’s Spirit regenerating a person to believe and follow Christ.

In Christ, the LOGOS/WORD of God, the fullness of the knowledge and understanding of God is made clearly known (to our heart and our mind):

Col 2:2-3 . . . that their hearts may be encouraged, having been knit together in love, and attaining to all the wealth that comes from the full assurance of understanding, resulting in a true knowledge of God’s mystery, that is, Christ Himself, 3 in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

Ps 19:1 The heavens are telling of the glory of God;
And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.
2 Day to day pours forth speech,
And night to night reveals knowledge.

Pr 9:10 Knowledge of the Holy One is understanding.

Prov 12:1 Whoever loves discipline loves knowledge.

In a concluding application then of this assertion that the head and the heart are not distinguished in the Bible, and in fact are not distinguishable in us, there are several implications to consider. If the heart is what defines what we are as persons in our character, our will, being, intentions, thoughts, emotions, and nature, then the “heart” is to be identified with the “head” as the origin of our thoughts, feelings, and actions. The heart/head is thus the “substance” and evidence of our soul, and the source of its spiritual and moral state. This is important in our response to the twin errors of Rationalism and Emotionalism.

Rationalism (often associated exclusively with the “head”) asserts the primacy of human thought/reason at the exclusion of divine revelation and illumination to understand it. The rejection of divine revelation is an absolute error, since it leads to absolute error, since the human mind cannot consistently reason correctly about general revelation unaided by God’s interpretation. This is not to say that the human mind does not understand general revelation enough to theologically know that God is and who he is in his eternal attributes (Rom 1), but in sinful humans this knowledge is twisted and suppressed by unbelief. For believers, the role of the Spirit’s illumination is thus also vital for understanding God’s Special revelation, his revealed Word (it is also related to the sanctifying role of the Spirit of God in our hearts). Rationalism also often excludes the role of emotion in the reasoning process. This is a serious loss of the intrinsic relationship of these two aspects of our reasoning. In rejecting the assumptions of Rationalism, we do not reject the rational aspect of our God-given ability to reason. As made in God’s image, we must of necessity have the irrepressible ability to think, and to think in a properly linear fashion along the principle of the law of non-contradiction. We are innately given the capacity to reason that A is not non-A, and we all have the ability to differentiate unity and diversity in all of God’s creation. This is not obliterated even by the corruption of our minds and their reasoning processes, so it can follow that it is actually impossible for a person to think at all without reason. Even irreason, irrationality, illogicality, and faulty reasoning are all evidence of this inescapable reasoning aspect of our created nature in the image of God. That is to say, even poor and faulty reasoning is still reasoning. In this sense then that rationality is inescapable, and thus irrepressible, even denials of reason as such must of necessity employ reason to deny reason.

Emotionalism (often associated exclusively with the “heart”), on the other extreme, rejects in practice the essential and role of proper reason and rational strategies of thought and action. (It is too easy to use this word to characterize things that seem irrational (or unreasonable) to us, but nevertheless for purposes of discussion we need not reject the term itself.) Emotionalism is found in many forms historically, and is a persistent problem in contemporary Evangelicalism wherever it exalts experience/emotion over propositions, truth, and reason. It tends toward anti-intellectualism, in that it distrusts the claims of rationalism as well as any claims of the necessity of reason/rationality. All the same, we must assert that emotion is a God-given aspect of our being made in his image, but it is to be guided by reason based on divine revelation (the canon of scripture) and illuminated by the Spirit of God. Further, emotion is often greatly perverted due to sin, and is the cause of much of the human misery in the history of world. In light of that, there may be a bit of emotionalism in all that we do, in the sense that our emotions often override our better sense, and reason gets displaced, and we make bad choices based on our distorted, or overpowering, feelings. Sometimes, we even call someone irrational when they are behaving in badly and in inexplicable ways, but what we may be describing are actions based on feelings that override good, rational judgment (hence, “crimes of passion”).

Some contemporary cultural and philosophical movements can be said to have an emotionalist motivation, such as Romanticism (19 century) that has flourished in the twentieth and twenty first centuries in many diverse forms: e.g., utopian Communism, the Marxian revolts of the 1960’s, Existentialism, and Postmodernism. Similarly, much revivalism in Christian circles has been characterized by anti-intellectual emotionalism. Much Evangelicalism in song and form stresses experience (pietism) and emotion (“heart”) over against doctrine, content, reason, knowledge, and propositional truth (“head”) as the foundation for faith.

As demonstrated in this church sign, anti-intellectual, anti-reason ideas are common in American Christianity. What does this mean that reason is the greatest enemy of faith? That faith is reasonless? “Just believe,” do not ask (reasonable) questions? That the heart is superior to the mind/head? That the mind/head is an enemy to the heart? That we believe with the heart, but disbelieve with the head?

We can at least point out that the statement itself is self-contradicting (self-refuting), since the statement depends upon reason and linearity, and the assumption of the law of non-contradiction, as well as the ability of people reading it to rationally comprehend the words.  In other words, the (reasoned) creation of the sign’s wording, and reading with understanding (reason) the words of the sentence would contradict the proposed (and irrational) meaning of the sign itself!

. . . There is a widely prevalent theory, that truth may be of the feelings as well as of the intellect; that it may not only come thus from two independent sources, but may be contradictory so that what is true to the feelings may be false to the intellect and visa versa; and that as moral character and so Christian life are rooted in the voluntary nature, of which the feelings are an expression, the Christian life may be developed and, some say, would better be developed, without reference to such intellectual conceptions as doctrinal statements. This theory is radically false. There is no knowledge of the heart. Feeling can give knowledge no more than can excitement. As Prof. Bowen has well said, “Feeling is a state of mind consequent on the reception of some idea.” That is, it does not give knowledge; it presupposes it. There must be knowledge by the head before there can be feeling with the heart. Once more you see the point. The religion of the heart and the theology of the head cannot be divorced. Unless the heart be disposed toward Christ, the head cannot, because it will not, discern the truth of Christ. As our Lord said, “It is only he who wills to obey God, whose heart is right toward Him, who shall know the doctrine whether it be of Him.” On the other hand, zeal in Christ’s cause will be strong and abiding in proportion as the faith from which it springs and by which it is nourished is intelligent. Zeal without knowledge is dangerous and short-lived. William Brenton Greene, Jr. (1906)[3]

[1] Frame, Systematic Theology, p. 756.

[2] A more complete accounting of the whole person is needed in this conversation, in that any definitions of knowing should include the various complementary aspects of the human mind: for example, the emotions, reason, the will, intuition, imagination, perception. And, instead of debating which is “primary” we should explore their interrelationships more carefully.

[3] Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, p. 368. “We associate thought and memory with the brain today, but in the idiom of the Bible, thinking is a function of the heart” (ibid., p. 369).

[4] Greene, “Broad Churchism and the Christian Life,” Princeton Theological Review, 4 (July 1906), pp. 311-13.

See also my blog on dualism at